cynic

cyn·ic (sĭn’ĭk)
n. 1) A person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness. 2) A person whose outlook is scornfully and habitually negative. 3) Cynic A member of a sect of ancient Greek philosophers who believed virtue to be the only good and self-control to be the only means of achieving virtue.
adj. 1) Cynical. 2) Cynic Of or relating to the Cynics or their beliefs.
[Latin cynicus, Cynic philosopher, from Greek kunikos, from kuōn, kun-, dog; see kwon-.]
Word History: The Greek word kunikos, from which cynic comes, was originally an adjective meaning "doglike," from kuōn, "dog." The use of the word kunikos to designate the Cynic philosophers may make reference to the Kunosarges, an athletic training area where Antisthenes, a pupil of Socrates, is said to have taught the foundations of Cynic philosophy: that virtue, rather than pleasure, is the only good, and that virtue can be attained only through rigorous self-control. Alternatively, the designation kunikos may make reference to Antisthenes' most famous student, Diogenes of Sinope, whom the people of Athens nicknamed ho kuōn, "the dog." Diogenes himself seems to have accepted this nickname as an apt description of the life he tried to lead, stripped of all elements of civilization and social convention that he considered superfluous and detrimental to virtue. Diogenes lived without shame out of an old wine jar in the public spaces of Athens and went barefoot in the snow to inure himself to cold, all the while reproaching the citizens of Athens for their addiction to worthless pleasures and luxuries. Even Alexander the Great admired Diogenes' determination and powers of self-denial in the pursuit of virtue. Once, when Diogenes was sunning himself outside, Alexander came up and stood over him. "Ask me any favor you wish," Alexander said. "Stand out of the sun," Diogenes replied. According to another anecdote, diners made fun of Diogenes at a banquet by throwing bones at him like a dog, and he responded by urinating on them. Tales like these have undoubtedly influenced the development of the meaning of the word cynic in English. When Cynic first appeared in English in the 1500s, it referred to the Cynic philosophers, but cynic and cynical were soon applied to anyone who finds fault in others in a contemptuous or sneering way. Eventually, cynic came to mean "one who believes selfishness determines human behavior"—very far from an accurate description of the ancient Cynic philosophers practicing asceticism and poverty and occasionally trying to shock their fellow citizens into virtue.

Word Histories. 2014.

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  • Cynic — Cyn ic (s[i^]n [i^]k), Cynical Cyn ic*al ( [i^]*kal), a. [L. cynicus of the sect of Cynics, fr. Gr. kyniko s, prop., dog like, fr. ky wn, kyno s, dog. See {Hound}.] 1. Having the qualities of a surly dog; snarling; captious; currish. I hope it is …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cynic — Cyn ic, n. (Gr. Philos) 1. One of a sect or school of philosophers founded by Antisthenes, and of whom Diogenes was a disciple. The first Cynics were noted for austere lives and their scorn for social customs and current philosophical opinions.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cynic — ► NOUN 1) a person who has little faith in the integrity or sincerity of others. 2) a sceptic. 3) (Cynic) (in ancient Greece) a member of a school of philosophers founded by Antisthenes, characterized by an ostentatious contempt for wealth and… …   English terms dictionary

  • Cynic — Allgemeine Informationen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • cynic — mid 16c., in reference to the ancient philosophy, from Gk. kynikos a follower of Antisthenes, lit. dog like, from kyon (gen. kynos) dog (see CANINE (Cf. canine)). Supposedly from the sneering sarcasm of the philosophers, but more likely from… …   Etymology dictionary

  • cynic — cynic, cynical Cynical is the adjective form used in the meaning ‘doubting human sincerity or integrity’ and has developed a further meaning ‘disregarding normal rules or standards’, as in a cynical foul, a cynical tackle, etc. Cynic is used with …   Modern English usage

  • cynic — [n] nonbeliever carper, caviler, detractor, disbeliever, doubter, doubting Thomas*, egoist, egotist, flouter, misanthrope, misanthropist, misogamist, misogynist, mocker, pessimist, questioner, satirist, scoffer, skeptic, sneerer, unbeliever;… …   New thesaurus

  • cynic — [sin′ik] n. [L Cynicus < Gr kynikos, lit., doglike, as if < kyōn, dog (see HOUND1), nickname of Diogenes, but prob. in allusion to the Kynosarges, a gymnasium where the Cynics taught (< kyōn + argos, lit., white dog, so named after an… …   English World dictionary

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